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Banned Substances in Sports

Banned Substances in Sports
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Synopsis:

A list of banned substances and restricted ingredients by specific sports governing bodies in the United States and worldwide are listed.


There are several organizations and governing bodies that provide extensive information about prohibited substances in sports, including:

The majority of sports organizations including the Olympics use the standards established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Following is the 2015 list of banned substances from WADA.

  • S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES

  • Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.g drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer drugs, substances approved only for veterinary use) is prohibited at all times.

 

  • S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS

    Anabolic agents are prohibited.

    1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)

    a. Exogenous* AAS, including:

      • 1-androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol)
      • 1-androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione)
      • bolandiol (estr-4-ene-3β,17β-diol)
      • bolasterone
      • boldenone
      • boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione)
      • calusterone
      • clostebol
      • danazol ([1,2]oxazolo[4',5':2,3]pregna-4-en-20-yn-17α-ol)
      • dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
      • desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol)
      • drostanolone
      • ethylestrenol (19-norpregna-4-en-17α-ol)
      • fluoxymesterone
      • formebolone
      • furazabol (17α-methyl[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3',4':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol)
      • gestrinone
      • 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one)
      • mestanolone
      • mesterolone
      • metandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one)
      • metenolone
      • methandriol
      • methasterone (17β-hydroxy-2α,17α-dimethyl-5α-androstan-3-one)
      • methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one)
      • methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
      • methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one)
      • methyltestosterone
      • metribolone (methyltrienolone, 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
      • mibolerone
      • nandrolone
      • 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione)
      • norboletone
      • norclostebol
      • norethandrolone
      • oxabolone
      • oxandrolone
      • oxymesterone
      • oxymetholone
      • prostanozol (17β-[(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy]-1'H-pyrazolo[3,4:2,3]-5α-androstane)
      • quinbolone
      • stanozolol
      • stenbolone
      • 1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one)
      • tetrahydrogestrinone (17-hydroxy-18a-homo-19-nor-17α-pregna-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
      • trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3-one)
      • and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).

    b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously

  •  

  • 2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:

      • clenbuterol
      • selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs, e.g. andarine and ostarine)
      • tibolone
      • zeranol
      • zilpaterol.
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    S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS, RELATED SUBSTANCES AND MIMETICS

    The following substances, and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), are prohibited:

    1. Erythropoietin-Receptor agonists:

    • 1.1 Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) including
      • darbepoietin (dEPO)
      • erythropoietins (EPO)
      • EPO-Fc
      • EPO-mimetic peptides (EMP) e.g.
        • CNTO 530
        • peginesatide
      • methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA).
      1.2 Non-erythropoietic EPO-Receptor agonists
      • ARA-290
      • asialo EPO
      • carbamylated EPO.

    2. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)

      • HIF stabilizers e.g
        • cobalt
        • FG-4592
      • HIF activators e.g
        • argon
        • xenon

    3. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and their releasing factors in males

      • buserelin
      • gonadorelin
      • triptorelin

    4. Corticotrophins and their releasing factors

      • corticorelin

    5. Growth Hormone (GH) and its releasing factors including

      • Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and its analogues e.g.
        • CJC-1295
        • sermorelin
        • tesamorelin
      • Growth Hormone Secretagogues (GHS) e.g 
      • ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics e.g.
        • anamorelin
        • ipamorelin
      • GH-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) e.g.
        • alexamorelin
        • GHRP-6
        • hexarelin
        • pralmorelin (GHRP-2).
      Additional prohibited growth factor:
      • Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs); Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF); Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and its analogues; Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs); Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF); Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and any other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching.
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    S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS

    • All beta-2 agonists, including all optical isomers, e.g. d- and l- where relevant, are prohibited. 

      Except:
      • Inhaled salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours);
      • Inhaled formoterol (maximum delivered dose 54 micrograms over 24 hours); and
      • Inhaled salmeterol in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regimen.
      The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 40 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of the therapeutic inhaled dose up to the maximum indicated above.
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    S4. HORMONE AND METABOLIC MODULATORS

    The following hormone and metabolic modulators are prohibited:

    1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to:

      • aminoglutethimide
      • anastrozole
      • androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione)
      • 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo)
      • exemestane
      • formestane
      • letrozole
      • testolactone.

    2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to:

      • raloxifene
      • tamoxifen
      • toremifene.

    3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to:

      • clomiphene
      • cyclofenil
      • fulvestrant.

    4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to:

      • myostatin inhibitors.

    5. Metabolic modulators:

      • Activators of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), e.g. AICAR; and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists e.g. GW 1516
      • Insulins
      • Trimetazidine
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    S5. DIURETICS AND MASKING AGENTS

    The following diuretics and masking agents are prohibited, as are other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).

    Including, but not limited to:

      • desmopressin
      • probenecid
      • plasma expanders e.g. glycerol and intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol
      • acetazolamide
      • amiloride
      • bumetanide
      • canrenone
      • chlortalidone
      • etacrynic acid
      • furosemide
      • indapamide
      • metolazone
      • spironolactone
      • thiazides, e.g. bendroflumethiazide
      • chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide
      • triamterene
      • vaptans, e.g. tolvaptan.
      Except:
      • drospirenone
      • pamabrom
      • topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide.
      • Local administration of felypressin in dental anaesthesia.
      The detection in an Athlete’s Sample at all times or In-Competition, as applicable, of any quantity of the following substances subject to threshold limits: formoterol, salbutamol, cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine,  in conjunction with a diuretic or masking agent, will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete has an approved TUE for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or masking agent.
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    S6. STIMULANTS

    All stimulants, including all optical isomers e.g. d- and l- where relevant, are prohibited.

    Stimulants include:

    a: Non-Specified Stimulants:

      • adrafinil
      • amfepramone
      • amfetamine
      • amfetaminil
      • amiphenazole
      • benfluorex
      • benzylpiperazine
      • bromantan
      • clobenzorex
      • cocaine
      • cropropamide
      • crotetamide
      • fencamine
      • fenetylline
      • fenfluramine
      • fenproporex
      • fonturacetam [4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon)]
      • furfenorex
      • mefenorex
      • mephentermine
      • mesocarb
      • metamfetamine (d-)
      • p-methylamphetamine
      • modafinil
      • norfenfluramine
      • phendimetrazine
      • phentermine
      • prenylamine
      • prolintane.
      A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.

    b: Specified Stimulants

    • Including, but not limited to:
      • benzfetamine
      • cathine**
      • cathinone and its analogues e.g. mephedrone, methedrone, α- pyrrolidinovalerophenone
      • dimethylamphetamine
      • ephedrine***
      • epinephrine**** (adrenaline)
      • etamivan
      • etilamfetamine
      • etilefrine
      • famprofazone
      • fenbutrazate
      • fencamfamin
      • heptaminol
      • hydroxyamfetamine (parahydroxyamphetamine)
      • isometheptene
      • levmetamfetamine
      • meclofenoxate
      • methylenedioxymethamphetamine
      • methylephedrine***
      • methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine)
      • methylphenidate
      • nikethamide
      • norfenefrine
      • octopamine
      • oxilofrine (methylsynephrine)
      • pemoline
      • pentetrazol
      • phenethylamine and its derivatives;
      • phenmetrazine
      • phenpromethamine
      • propylhexedrine
      • pseudoephedrine*****
      • selegiline
      • sibutramine
      • strychnine
      • tenamfetamine (methylenedioxyamphetamine)
      • tuaminoheptane
      • and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
      Except:
      Imidazole derivatives for topical/ophthalmic use and those stimulants included in the 2015 Monitoring Program.

      * Bupropion, caffeine, nicotine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol and synephrine: These substances are included in the 2015 Monitoring Program, and are not considered Prohibited Substances.
      ** Cathine: Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.
      *** Ephedrine and methylephedrine: Prohibited when the concentration of either in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
      **** Epinephrine (adrenaline): Not prohibited in local administration e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic or co-administration with local anaesthetic agents.
      ***** Pseudoephedrine: Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 micrograms per milliliter.
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    S7. NARCOTICS

    Prohibited:

      • buprenorphine
      • dextromoramide
      • diamorphine (heroin)
      • fentanyl and its derivatives
      • hydromorphone
      • methadone
      • morphine
      • oxycodone
      • oxymorphone
      • pentazocine
      • pethidine.
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    S8. CANNABINOIDS

    Prohibited:

      • natural e.g. cannabis, hashish and marijuana
      • synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
      • cannabimimetics e.g. “Spice”, JWH-018, JWH-073, HU-210.
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    S9. GLUCORTICOIDS

    • All glucocorticoids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes.
    Expand
    • and their metabolites and isomers, including but not limited to:
      • androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol)
      • androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione)
      • dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one)
      • prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, 3β-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one)
      • testosterone
      • 5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol
      • 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol
      • 5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol
      • 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol
      • 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol
      • androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol
      • androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol
      • androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol
      • androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol
      • androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol
      • androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol
      • 4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol)
      • 5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione)
      • androsterone (3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one)
      • epi-dihydrotestosterone
      • epitestosterone
      • etiocholanolone
      • 7α-hydroxy-DHEA
      • 7β-hydroxy-DHEA
      • 7-keto-DHEA
      • 19-norandrosterone
      • 19-noretiocholanolone.
    • If a Substance or Method is not found, please verify with your Anti-Doping Organization to ensure that this Substance or Method is not prohibited as a related Substance or Method that falls under an existing category.

      In accordance with Article 4.2.2 of the World Anti-Doping Code, all Prohibited Substances shall be considered as “Specified Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2, S4.4, S4.5, S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3.

    • iFormulary LLC does not warrant or guarantee the completeness of this list. For the most up-to-date list visit the World Anti-Doping Agency